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UFC - Ultra Fast Ceramic

UFC - Technology

WhatIsUFC

What is UFC?

Functional ceramics are all-important for high image quality. UFC or Ultra Fast Ceramic is a scintillator material which quickly and efficiently transforms radiation from the X-ray tube into light signals. These signals in the visible spectrum are in turn picked up by photodiodes, transforming them into electric signals, which are computed to become visual 2D or 3D images.

Conventionally, other single crystalline substances are used in X-ray detectors such as cadmium tungstate (CdWO4), or cesium iodide (CsI). In our Ultra Fast Ceramic we use a crystal lattice of rare earth compounds gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS). UFC has a large X-ray absorption coefficient and due to its fast decay, reacts very rapidly to changes in X-ray intensity. These properties make it the ideal scintillator not only for time-critical medical imaging, but also for other fields and dynamic applications.

What's the difference?

UFC is superior to conventional detector materials in many ways - from light output, to decay time and drift. This outstanding product has proven itself in the challenging field of medical imaging.

Now, we see our Ultra Fast Ceramic being used in more and more industries - in order to deliver ever-improving levels of accuracy and efficiency elsewhere.

How fast is UFC?

Due to its fast decay behaviour and extremely short afterglow, Siemens UFC scintillator material is optimized for use with the fastest CT scanners, with rotational speeds well under 0.4 seconds.

How fast is UFC

In high-speed cardiac imaging, UFC requires no compromises in the number of image projections or any other correction algorithms which would impair image quality. UFC's primary advantage is its speed in combination with other unique properties – from minuscule drift, to short afterglow and excellent mechanical behaviour and handling.

 

Since scanners are becoming increasingly faster, this advantage of fast decay times continues to gain in importance in medical imaging as in other dynamic applications.

Data Sheet


1. Properties


1.1 Physical Properties


1.1.1 X-ray and γ - Properties

X-ray Attenuation Coefficient, based on: μ = 1/d ln (I/Io)

Tube Voltage (polychromatic)Attenuation Coefficient
30 kVμ = 13.00 mm-1
50 kVμ = 4.99 mm-1
80 kVμ = 5.61 mm-1
120 kVμ = 4.62 mm-1
150 kVμ = 3.99 mm-1

Data based on experiments using a CT X-ray tube and filters 3.0 mm Al + 0.6 mm Titan; tungsten anode; attenuation coefficient of a 1.4 mm UFC detector.

Photon Energy (monochromatic)Attenuation Coefficient
1 keV μ = 3230 mm-1
2 keV μ = 1360 mm-1
5 keV μ = 256 mm-1
10 keV μ = 167 mm-1
20 keV μ = 27.0 mm-1
50 keV μ = 2.25 mm-1
100 keV μ = 1.92 mm-1
150 keV μ = 0.688 mm-1
200 keV μ = 0.354 mm-1
300 keV μ = 0.160 mm-1
500 keV μ = 0.0803 mm-1
1000 keV μ = 0.0451 mm-1

Data based on calculations for mono energetic radiation

 

a) Temporary Radiation Damage (Drift)
Signal change (typical) = 0.4% at 120 kV/250mA; t=60s
1005 mm (focus detector distance). Filter 10 mm Al equivalent at 80kV.


b) Permanent Radiation Damage
No permanent damage observed during 10 years of operation and in measurement
with 30 kGray.

 

Uniformity of Spectral Linearity
Typical uniformity = 0.025% over a length of 10 mm using the dual energy method:
120 kV/ 194 mAs/ 1005 mm (focus detector) and
140 kV/ 126 mAs/ 1005 mm (focus detector distance)


1.2 Optical Properties


1.2.1 Optical Constants

Refractive index n = 2.2

Absorption Coefficientμa = 0.19 cm -1( λ < 630 nm)
 μa= 0.0001 cm -1( λ > 630 nm)
Scattering Coefficientμa ca. 500 cm -1( λ < 630 nm)
 μa ca. 330 cm -1( λ > 630 nm)

1.2.2 Point Spread Function (subject to future changes)

ThicknessFWHM 1)FWTM 2)
0.4 mm0.6 mm1.6 mm
0.8 mm0.8 mm2.7 mm
1.0 mm0.9 mm3.3 mm
2.0 mm2.0 mm6.9 mm

Gaussian shape:
FWHM 1) = full width at half maximum
FWTM 2) = full width at tenth maximum
Simulation for a flat wafer with no boundaries. No reflector was used.
X-ray tube voltage 140 kV, filter 2 mm Al/1.26 mm Ti.


1.2.3 Light Output Uniformity

Light output change < 1% over a length of 30 mm.
Uniform X-ray exposure uncoated ceramic.
Use of a reflector may affect this value.


1.3 Luminescence


1.3.1 Emission Wavelength Spectrum

Emission Wavelength Spectrum

1.3.2 Short Time Afterglow

Short Time Afterglow

UFC

• time 0 for tuning off source is known within ~0.2 ms
• decay to < 10-3 occurs within 0.2 ms
• a trend to teach 10-4 is seen at 2.5 - 4 ms

 

1.3.3 Long - Term Afterglow with Pulsed X-ray Source

Long - Term Afterglow with Pulsed X-ray Source

UFC

• data interval is 1 ms
• decay to 10-4 is seen after 1 ms and decay to < 10-5 within 10 ms
• digitization noise becomes relevant below 10-5
• a trend towards 10-6 is seen between 10 ms and 100ms

 

1.4 Bulk Properties


1.4.1 Density

7.29 – 7.33 g/cm3 (99.95% of theoretical density)


1.4.2 Vickers Hardness (subject to future changes)

HV = 910 ± 50 (Force: 1.5 N, duration: 20 s, rate: 20 p/s)


1.4.3 Thermal Properties


Specific Heat Capacity
Cp ≈ 0.318 ± 0.016 Jg-1K-1 at 305 K

 

Thermal Expansion Coefficient (volume)
10.0 *10-6 ± 0.3 * 10-6 K-1 between 423 K – 873 K

 

Thermal change of light output
The average change of light output is 6 GU/K (Temperature = from 301K to 310K)

 

Thermal Conductivity
9.6 ± 1.4 Wm-1K-1 at 293 K


1.4.4 Electrical Properties

Conductivity (dark)
σd< 1 * 10-13 Ω -1 m-1

 

Photoconductivity (at typical light intensities) can be neglected.


2. Handling


2.1 General Resistance

UFC is resistant to all kinds of oil, solvent and water. It dissolves in concentrated mineral acids.


2.2 Weather Resistance

No change in characteristic properties after 3 months at an atmosphere of 100% O2, a relative humidity of 100% and a temperature of 70 °C (158°F).


2.3 Machining Properties

UFC may be precision machined and processed using all kinds of abrasive methods as sawing, lapping, polishing as well as etching.


2.4 Handling Tools

The UFC needs to be handled according to the rules of good craftsmanship. It may not be handled using smooth metals (up to non-hardened steel). Metallic contaminations are difficult to remove.


2.5 Environmental Safety

Due to its non poisonous nature UFC has no impact on the environment unlike other solid state scintillation materials.


3. Customizing


3.1 Form

Rectangular wafers or crude blocks.

3.2 Size

Edge Length:min: 109 mm ± 0.01 mm
 max: 116 mm ± 0.01 mm
Thickness:min: 1.49 mm ± 0.003 mm
 max: 29.30 mm ± 2 mm

Flatness: < 10 μm


3.3 Surface Roughness

Rz = 2.5 μm – 8 μm

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